Plectranthus amboinicus Common name: Cuban oregano Other common names: Ajwain leaf, Broad leaf thyme, Country borage, French thyme, Indian borage, Indian mint, Mexican mint, Soup mint, Spanish thyme, Three in one The origin of Cuban Oregano is unknown - it is widely Online Database. The species reproduces both by seeds and vegetatively (Wagner and Lorence, 2014) and forms dense carpets in shaded dry forest (PIER, 2014). It is shade tolerant (PIER, 2014). Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Leaf blade is fleshy, broadly ovate to circular, P. amboinicus is of unknown origin but possibly Africa and India (Wagner and Lorence, 2014), and it has since been distributed and cultivated pantropically. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html, CABI, Undated. Flora of the Marquesas Islands website. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. Cuban Oregano is a sprawling and somewhat succulent herb, growing to 1 m Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. The genus name “Plectranthus” is a combination of 2 Greek words that mean “spur” (plectron) and “flower” (anthos). Flowers are borne in 10-20-flowered, densely 1192 pp. Many Lamiaceae species have square stems (although square stems are also found in other families), aromatic aerial parts when crushed, simple opposite leaves, and two-lipped flowers. Merrill E D, 1923. Meyer JY, 2000. [Wagner and Lorence, 2014]. The leaves are also eaten as a vegetable, as well as for washing clothes, hair, and laundry due to its fragrance (Whistler, 2000; Wyk, 2005; Lukhoba et al., 2006). P. amboinicus is an aromatic herb listed in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012) as “cultivation escape, environmental weed, naturalised, weed” and is known to be invasive outside of its native range including Cuba (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012) and the Pacific Islands (PIER, 2014). Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. Department of Botany Vascular Plant Family Access Page: Lamiaceae (Labiatae). Paris, France: Imprimerie officielle; Muse´um national d'histoire naturelle. Flowers are … up, densely hairy. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf. The PLANTS Database. Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser. In Brazil, the species is often grown in subsistence agriculture (Wyk, 2005). Humbert H, 1951. Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Flora of Madagascar and the Comoros. P. amboinicus occurs at low altitudes; in Mesoamerica the species grows from 0 to 800 m and in Bolivia it has been recorded at 0-500 m (Roux, 2003; Bolivia Checklist, 2014; Flora Mesoamericana, 2014). The stem is fleshy, about Template:Convert, either with long rigid hairs (hispidly villous) or densely covered with soft, short and erect hairs (tomentose). Hanelt P; Buttner R; Mansfeld R, 2001. Panikoorka, or Plectranthus amboinicus, is a popular remedy used in South Indian states to treat coughs and colds in children.The plant is known for its numerous therapeutic benefits, and is particularly popular in Kerala. English: country borage; Cuban oregano; French thyme; Indian mint; Mexican mint; soup mint; Spanish thyme Finely chopped, they Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide. Leaves Photograph by: Mokkie. P. amboinicus is distinguishable by its square-shaped stem, opposite leaves, strong and pleasant fragrance, and pale blue-to-pink two-lipped flowers (Whistler, 2000). St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. Although it is known to be cultivated in South America, the species was not included in Funk et al.’s (2007) work on the Guiana Shield or the Brazilian flora of Forzza et al. In Bolivia the species is cultivated in semideciduous forest (Bolivia Checklist, 2014). The herb is used as a folk remedy for burns and bites, internally as a carminative and antiasthma, and applied externally as an insect repellant, and is also often grown as an ornamental plant for its attractive leaves and flowers (Whistler, 2000; Hanelt et al., 2001). Botanical name: Coleus amboinicus Family: Lamiaceae (Mint family) Synonyms: Plectranthus amboinicus, Coleus aromaticus, Plectranthus aromaticus. Flora of South Africa., Cape Town, South Africa: South African National Biodiversity Institute, Compton Herbarium. © Copyright 2020 CAB International. Barbados: University of the West Indies. Spreng. Plectranthus species are also used for dry season fodder (Lukhoba et al., 2006), which might also result in further spread. Govaerts R, 2014. With common names that include Mexican mint, Spanish thyme, and Indian borage, Cuban oregano leaves many gardeners wondering exactly what it is when they encounter it at a garden center. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. I see the reason for the confusion! ed. Leaves have stalks densely velvety, like most mint family plants. Flora de Madagascar et des Comores. USDA-ARS, 2014. Leaves petiolate with blades fleshy, broadly ovate to suborbicular, rhombic, or reniform, 4-10 cm long, 3-9 cm wide, rounded to truncate and then often long-attenuate at base, obtuse to rounded at apex, coarsely crenate to dentate at margins or entire toward base, densely appressed-pubescent above and beneath; petiole 1-4.5 cm long. Accidental introduction to the wild has also occurred; the species can regenerate by both seeds and vegetative fragments, and is known to be a cultivation escape (PIER, 2014). The species is now widely cultivated for culinary and medicinal uses in tropical regions including Australia, South America and the West Indies (Wyk, 2005). rhombic, or kidney-shaped, 4-10 cm long, 3-9 cm broad, coarsely toothed at Indian borage; Other Scientific Names. Plant common names… not so much. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm, Bolivia Checklist, 2014. It has been widely cultivated and naturalized in the Indo-Malesian region and other tropical regions around the world, as demonstrated by some of its common names including Mexican Mint, Cuban Oregano, Spanish Thyme, and French Thyme (USDA-ARS, 2014). There are no pictures available for this datasheet, http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm, http://tropicos.org/NameSearch.aspx?projectid=13, http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html, http://www.nhbs.com/title/79635/flore-de-madagascar-et-des-comores-fam-175, http://www.forgottenbooks.org/books/Botanical_Publications_of_E_D_Merrill_1000888541, http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf, http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/carr/lami.htm, https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx, http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/marquesasflora/index.htm, http://www.nhbs.com/title/79635/flore-de-m, https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx, http://botany.si.edu/antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm, http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/marquesasflora/, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License, Protected agriculture (e.g. – Mexican mint. Description. http://plants.usda.gov/, Wagner WL; Lorence DH, 2014. The Many Health Benefits of Panikoorka. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/. Further research is recommended on control of the species. Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, Highly adaptable to different environments, Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc, Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year, Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately. Flora Mesoamericana. List of species of the Flora of Brazil (Lista de espécies Flora do Brasil). It is considered a common weed in South Africa (Roux, 2003). Habit: It is a mound-forming succulent subshrubs, shrubby at the base, much branched up to 150 (or more)cm in diameter and 30-90 cm tall if left untrimmed. Country of Origin: Kenya to S. Africa, Arabian Pen., India Description: Plectranthus amboinicus is a large succulent herb, fleshy and highly aromatic, much branched, possessing short soft erect hairs, with distinctive smelling leaves. The species is also used in magico-religious rituals to ward off spirits, as a food additive, vegetable, insect repellant, and for its essential oils (Hanelt et al., 2001; Lukhoba et al., 2006). Typically growing to 60–75 cm (24–30 in) tall and wide, it is a bushy, woody-based evergreen perennial, widely grown for the highly decorative variegated leaves found in cultivated varieties. margin or entire toward base. In: Sherley G, tech. The species is tolerant of some shade (PIER, 2014), preferring fertile, well-drained soils in partially shaded areas (Whistler, 2000). It is used medicinally in Brazil for the treatment of skin ulcerations caused by Leishmania braziliensis, in Malaysia to treat burns and as a poultice for centipedes and scorpion bites, and in India, the juice of the leaves is used to treat skin allergies (Lukhoba et al., 2006). Common Name: Country Borage. The type specimen of the species was collected in Amboina, Moluccas, resulting in its species name amboinicus (Roux, 2003). Among the several medicinal plants used in Ayurveda, Plectranthus amboinicus is known to possess anti-microbial, anti-oxidant and anti-epileptic properties. Sprawling and somewhat succulent aromatic herb to 1 m high, sometimes subligneous and prostrate at base, the branchlets ascending, densely spreading-hirsute. National Plant Data Center, NRCS, USDA. Stearns dictionary of plant names for gardeners: A handbok on the origin and meaning of the botanical names of some cultivated plants. (Flore de Madagascar et des Comores. Spreng. Leaves are Template:Convert by Template:Convert, fleshy, undivided (simple), broad, egg/oval-shaped with a tapering tip (ovate). Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx, USDA-NRCS, 2014. Plectranthus amboinicus, once recognized as Coleus amboinicus, is a semi-succulent perennial plant in the family Lamiaceae which includes common herbs such as basil, mint, oregano, sage, rosemary, and thyme with a pungent oregano-like flavor and odor. Portland, Oregon, USA: Timber Press. The margins are coarsely crenate to dentate-crenate except in the base. most mint family plants. > 0°C, dry winters), Widely cultivated in home gardens and commercially for culinary, medicinal, and ornamental use, Used medicinally in Africa, Asia, Pacific and Americas, Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies, GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. Online Database. Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng belongs to family Lamiaceae, known as country borage in English. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. P. amboinicus contains limonene, linalool, myrcene and thymol as well as amorphene and cubebene, which may have antimicrobial activity (Lukhoba et al., 2006). South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa. Other are Coleus aromaticus, Coleus amboinicus, and Plectranthus aromaticus. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean., Barbados: University of the West Indies. The plant is sometimes prostrate at base, with the branchlets rising up, densely hairy. Portland, OR, USA: Timber Press, 480 pp. Common Name: Cuban Oregano Family: Lamiaceae Lindl. Leaf blade is fleshy, broadly ovate to circular, rhombic, coarsely toothed at margin or entire toward base. Hymoquinone (5) was further identified as a nonpolar ingredient from the hexane extract of P. amboinicus to suppress the expression of lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Spreng; Synonyms : Coleus amboinicus Lour. The species epithet “amboinicus” is derived from Ambon, an island in the East Indies where Rumphius, a well-known botanist, is from. The largest and probably the best known of the Plectranthus group is the plant we commonly call coleus. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html, Flora Mesoamericana, 2014. Sepal cup is bell-shaped, 1.5-4 mm long. Variegated form Photograph by: Mokkie. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html, Randall RP, 2012. http://tropicos.org/NameSearch.aspx?projectid=13, Broome R; Sabir K; Carrington S, 2007. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf. The risk of introduction for this species is likely to remain high due to its continued popularity as a cultivated culinary and medicinal herb. P. amboinicus is cultivated in gardens and commercial agricultural settings. CABI is a registered EU trademark. Symbolae Antillanae: Seu fundamenta florae Indiae Occidentalis. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. The Indian Borage plant has the name “Plectranthus” which comes from the Greek “plectron”, meaning spur, and “Anthos”, meaning flower, this refers to a flower that is shaped like a nail. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. Let’s start with what it is not. tall. Richmond, London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. International Common Names. Famille 175. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. This family includes some of the most well-known herbs containing essential oils including lavender, sage, basil, mint and oregano. Tropicos database. Funk V; Hollowell T; Berry P; Kelloff C; Alexander SN, 2007. http://tropicos.org/NameSearch.aspx?projectid=13, Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Benth. It has also been recorded growing on roadsides (PIER, 2014) and can escape or become naturalized in disturbed places (Whistler, 2000). http://www.forgottenbooks.org/books/Botanical_Publications_of_E_D_Merrill_1000888541. Flora of South Africa. It is large succulent aromatic perennial herb, shrubby below, hispidly villous or tomentose. > 10°C, Cold average temp. Wyk BEvan, 2005. Coleus aromaticus (Roxb.) Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. excellent addition to stuffings for meat and poultry. Lukhoba CW; Simmonds MSJ; Paton AJ, 2006. It can tolerate a range of soil conditions, shade, and moisture (Whistler, 2000). Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. Plectranthus amboinicus, Coleus aromaticus - Cuban Oregano Polska wersja PLANT PROFILE The plant that You can see on photos here is a herb that have many names. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov, Wagner WL, Lorence DH, 2014. In the USA, the species occurs as a perennial shrub (USDA-NRCS, 2014). Family 175- Labiatae (Flora of Madagascar and the Comoros. A plant with many names, Plectranthus amboinicus is commonly called Cuban oregano and also bears the monikers Mexican mint, Indian borage and Caribbean oregano. Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) P. amboinicus has spread to most tropical parts of the world through intentional human introduction for cultivation. Because of the lack of clear-cut morphological criteria to discriminate not only among species within the Plectranthus genus but also among the closely related genera, numerous taxonomic problems in the naming of species have resulted in misplacement of species in several closely related genera like Coleus, Solenostemon and Englerastrum (Lukhoba et al., 2006). Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. From there it went to Solenostemon scutellarioides, but recently the … Food plants of the world: An illustrated guide. Oviedo Prieto R; Herrera Oliver P; Caluff MG, et al. 103 (1), 1-24. The Plectranthus genus is characterized by both annual and perennial plants, many of which are used for food, ornamental, and medical purposes. The species can regenerate vegetatively as well as by seeds (Wagner and Lorence, 2014). Common names: African thyme, French thyme, country borage, Indian borage, Indian mint, broad-leaf thyme, soup mint (Eng. It is a widely used Ayurvedic herb and commonly known as Indian mint or Parnayavani. The plant is sometimes prostrate at base, with the branchlets rising up, densely hairy. This evergreen perennial works well in mixed beds and mass plantings and as a ground-cover. The species was present in the West Indies by the late nineteenth century. Description: Plectranthus amboinicus (sometimes misspelled amboinensis) is a succulent plant in the family Lamiaceae, possessing short soft erect hairs, with an agreeable and refreshing oregano-like flavour and odour. The leaves are strongly flavoured and make an Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. Scientific Classification. P. amboinicus is possibly native to tropical Africa and is widely cultivated in tropical regions around the world (USDA-ARS, 2014; Wagner and Lorence, 2014). Common Name : Cuban Oregano, Indian Borage, Indian Mint, Mexican Mint Plant Family : Lamiaceae (Labiatae) Plant Form : Succulents Occurrence (Special Areas) : Indroda Park About Plectranthus amboinicus Plant : Habit : A sprawling, perennial and succulent herb with short hairs and fleshy stems. http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/marquesasflora/index.htm, Marianne Jennifer Datiles, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA, Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA. Berlin, Germany: Springer. glasshouse production), Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25])), As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer, < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25]), Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate, < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25]), Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter, Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. The origin of P. amboinicus is unknown, but it may be native to Africa and possibly India (Wagner and Lorence, 2014). A Global Compendium of Weeds. A Lamiaceae mint plant, Plectranthus amboinicus grows up to Template:Convert tall. Stearn WT, 1992. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. Old stems are smooth (glabrescent). Berolini, Germany: Fratres Borntraeger. An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants [reprint]. Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Flowers are pale blue or mauve to http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/carr/lami.htm. Leaves are fleshy, broadly ovate, 4 to 9 centimeters long, often heart-shaped, and somewhat hairy, with rounded toothed margins, with the tip and base decurrent. Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) In Singapore, it is best grown in semi-shade, but it can be grown in full sun in temperate climates. Flowers Photograph by: Arun KumarN. Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Plectranthus amboinicus is a sprawling and somewhat succulent herb, growing to 1 m tall. Aromatic, green herb, growing to 1 m high, sometimes and... Cw ; Simmonds MSJ ; Paton AJ, 2006 conditions, shade and. 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