However, the upper classes soon began to return to the extravagance of the Late Han, and began splurging their wealth in public. To the Romans this peaceful time was known as Pax Romana, to the Chinese it was known as Pax Sinica. Rome had very large cities with little room because there were so many people, which also meant there was no room to build store houses. The state invested large amounts into agricultural production in order to expand its revenues. On the other hand, the Chinese advanced in science and art by inventing paper for use in literature and business; and an irrigation system that reached extensively across their fields allowing them to effectively water their crops. Ten silver coins are worth one gold coin.They trade with Anxi (Parthia) and Tianzhu (Northwestern India) by sea. Music and entertainment were separated from rituals, with the exception of funeral rites which were taken very seriously.[43]. Second, the estimate for the official Iron Offices iron production itself was inaccurate because it was based on low-end iron production estimates of China during the turmoil and economic upheaval of the late 19th-early 20th century. Their trade routes differed in their physical nature, but both spanned many miles and created a network of trade throughout the continent. But its importance is not the product of Western bias: the Roman Empire was … Late during the Han dynasty, aristocrats' accumulation of land in massive quantities forced large numbers of peasants off their lands. Li Bo, Zheng Yin, "5000 years of Chinese history", Inner Mongolia People's publishing corp. Scheidel, Walter,From the 'Great Convergence' to the 'First Great Divergence': Roman and Qin-Han State Formation and its Aftermath(10/2007). The several centuries of success for Han China (202 BCE – 220 CE) and the Roman Empire (27 BCE – 476 CE) pinpoint possibilities for comparison in the classical period. [9][10]. Pre-order Total War: Three Kingdoms today to get the Yellow Turban Rebellion for free. Comparing the Roman Empire and the Han Dynasty Our mission is to provide a free, world-class education to anyone, anywhere. The Cambridge Illustrated History of China. The Qin state, however, believed trade produced nothing of lasting value and encouraged the production of crops over trade[11]. To properly understand early Sino-Roman contact we have to look way back, to the time of Alexander the Great in ancient Greece. Though Roman and Han political structures, both emphasized bureaucracies, they came to … The Essay on Comparing the Fall of Han China and Roman Empire Han China and Rome were two of the most powerful and popular empires of their time, but they fell like any other empire before them. (2016, Aug 15). Even though these two civilizations held many differences, they also shared rulers who personally oversaw their governments to prevent numerous dilemmas and used expansive trade routes to build up their economies and further their influence in the world. Birth was an important indicator of social position. They shared a strict code of law, though one was used to govern all, while the other pertained to citizens and noncitizens. My cameraperson decided to do this, they are expected to pay careful attention in the present continuous and dynamic process of constructing diametrically opposed positions: In this case. Essays in Macro-Economic History", Oxford University Press, Milanovic, Branko; Lindert, Peter H.; Williamson, Jeffrey G. (Oct. 2007): "Measuring Ancient Inequality’, NBER Working Paper 13550, pp. "The Qin and Han Dynasties" in Chinese Architecture, 33–60. Wudi on the other hand implemented an examination that citizens could take. (1971). There have been some rough estimates of Han and the Roman industry based on the metallurgical production of later dynasties and time periods. The overall Han Dynasty iron production figures are unknown. D. B. Wagner speculates a Han production of 5000t from official state Iron Offices based on pig iron production in the late 19th-early 20th century, but he himself admits this figure is likely inaccurate: "Obviously one cannot lend much credence to this figure..." This estimate is likely inaccurate for several reasons: First because it only estimates production from official Iron Offices of 2AD during when Han state monopolies prohibited private iron production, creating a low estimate in the existence of iron producing facilities. Li Bo, Zheng Yin, "5000 years of Chinese history", Inner Mongolian People's publishing corp ,Page 240-245. The Han Dynasty collapsed and gave way to Three Kingdoms while Rome faced a series of civil wars and insurrections. The Chinese sovereign Wudi implemented Legalism at the beginning of his reign, giving him recognition throughout the ages. The Roman and Han Empires were the most powerful empires among the Classical Empires. Why is the Han Dynasty compared to the Roman Empire? The Roman Empire and the Han Dynasty faced similar problems of barbarian invasions and internal infighting. The western-most of the warring states in China was the Qin which stretched roughly to where the city of Lanzhou in Ga… In Han china, poetry, stories and books were very common; the elite was expected to be versed in prose and poetry. Relative stability at the court(the empire remained within the rule of one family), as well as the laissez-faire policies of the early Han emperors(see rule of Wen and Jing), allowed the Chinese economy to prosper. Revenue was also to a large extent sustained by state monopolies of salt and iron. The Romans, however, traded with the Middle East, Italy, India, and China. and the Han Dynasty of China from 206 B.C.E. Both of these empires utilize the policies and practices of previous political governments to help ensure their success. [62] Hills were cut through and deep ravines filled in. The peaceful times were a result of their successful trading. These include repairs and renovation work on the Dujiangyan Irrigation System of Sichuan and Zhengguo Canal of Shaanxi, both of which were built by the previous State of Qin. The Roman’s developed two different codes of law, one that applied to citizens and another that applied to non-citizens. [53]. All rights reserved, Han Dynasty and Roman Empire (Compare and Contrast). Where the Chinese province of Shanxi produced 160,000 tons of iron per year in 1870, it only produced 50,000 tons of iron per year by 1898. While the Roman rulers organized a state religion [45] and the emperors took a big part in it, the Han emperors were more secular; they acknowledged the existence of the gods and took part in ceremonies, but were for the most part unconcerned with them[46]. While in Europe, Huns launched attacks on the German tribes living north of the empire, forcing them to invade the Roman empire. Although a few rump states continue to exist and the Eastern empire tried several times to reconquer the west, Western Europe was securely in the hands of the barbarians. Roman Empire Vs. Han Dynasty Compare And Contrast Essay Both the Roman Empire and Han Dynasty were similar in their fall, in that they suffered through significant factors like Germanic Invasions that made them decline in power. STUDY. However, in the later stages of the Han empire, a major problem arose: the Han landowners' accumulation of land, along with the state's taxes, resulted in a large horde of landless peasants from which costly rebellions occurred. The influence of Roman law would long outlast the empire. This thought had the effect of weakening the nobility and strengthening the emperor. Han Dynasty and Roman Empire (Compare and Contrast) 8 August 2016 The Han Dynasty and the Roman Empire vary in their political development and achievements. The emperors were careful to present themselves as just rulers who governed from the consent of the citizenry, though tyrants such as Caracalla and Nero inflicted misery throughout the empire. The modern European countries are derived from the states formed by these peoples. A large proportion of overand underuse by efl learners of empire roman and dynasty and compare essay contrast han a discussion of those seven words. This spanned more than 250,000 miles (400,000 km) of roads, including more than 50,000 miles (80,500 km) of paved roads. Metal production would have further decreased during the Qing Dynasty's collapse and subsequent civil wars in the early 20th century. Whereas, China built huge store houses, and filled them during years when there was plenty of food. to 476 C.E. Many of their differences in political progress stem from using different forms of government. Many Han officials were appointed based on their ability to write essays explaining Confucian thought and how it applied to the administration of the Empire. In theory, everyone could become an official[44]. The Han Dynasty and the Roman Empire vary in their political development and achievements. These policies, together with the social unrest caused by the extravagance of the Jin officials and the infighting of the Jin royal family, soon lead to the collapse of the Jin.[76]. Han society was divided into a number of classes, all played a role within this complex society. Needham, Joseph. Are You on a Short Deadline? The Han Dynasty, on the other hand, provided the basis for culture and government in China, one of the most powerful Eastern influences. Characteristics Han China Well organized bureaucracy based upon Confucian ideas and education Roman Empire Well organized bureaucracy founded on Roman law and classical learning. The Roman Empire (Latin: Imperium Romanum) controlled the Western Mediterranean. The Roman Empire had the general idea to expand and conquer many countries. D. B. Wagner speculates the Tonglushan mining and smelting area alone was estimated to have produced between 40,000-120,000 tons of copper in the 6th century BC (unknown timelength? The barbarian invasions had devastated the Empire; the population of Italy and other areas of Europe plummeted. 25–29. Under Trajan, the Roman Empire was estimated to have a population of about 80 million. While this mining area was undoubtedly productive, this does not translate into an overall estimate for the total copper production for the region as a whole several centuries later. The official served him some pork. While the population size of the Roman empire has been traditionally given as 55-60 million, recent estimates of its demographic peak in the mid-2nd century AD range from 60-70 million ("low count") to over 100 million … These two countries differed in how they fed their populations because of their cities arrangements and as a result of their planning. The Roman Empire has long been the empire par excellence for the Western world. The Colosseum was a state-of-the-art entertainment facility, used most infamously for gladiatorial games in which well-trained men fought, sometimes to the death, for the enjoyment of huge crowds of Roman citizens. The Roman Empire and the Han Dynasty had its fair share of similarities and differences. Hopkins, Keith (1995/6): "Rome, Taxes, Rents, and Trade". Poorer farmers and tenant laborers worked on their fields. Alternatively, the Han Dynasty adopted Confucianism. Rome imported grain from Africa. To express their thoughts, Han scholars preferred the written medium; many books were written in that era. This policy was reverted after the coming of the Han.[12]. Further similarities are found when comparing their accomplishments. Compared to the Han bureaucracy, the Roman empire was relatively under-administered.[55]. These civilizations took different approaches on religion as well. However, differences also occurred amongst their achievements. This gave the Chinese an advantage because their goods were in high demand in the Roman cities, while Roman glassware was exported to China. Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? 365f. Many works of art and construction were done during this period[49].[50]. Meanwhile, Augustus of Rome, enforced a Republic government, in which the people voted for who they thought should become their representatives and officials. Get a verified writer to help you with Comparing the Fall of Han China and Roman Empire. Comparison / Contrast of Han and Roman Empires. [57] A list of Roman bridges compiled by the engineer Colin O'Connor features 330 Roman stone bridges for traffic, 34 timber bridges and 54 aqueduct bridges, a substantial part still standing and even used to carry vehicles. One thing can be said however, about these two great nations, no matter how similar or different they may be, they both have left large footprints in history. The empire was so large that internal trade was initiated in the empire alongside external trade with other empires like the Han and the Classical Indian on the Silk Road. (1986c). As agriculture shifted from self-sufficient manors to free farmers producing goods that were in demand, landowners began to use contracts and money to strike bargains with laborers and with each other. Introduction. Hereditary positions came back later, as evidenced by the fact that the founder of the Tang dynasty was the hereditary duke of Tang, and regional governors were allowed to pass titles on. Shaowin emperor of Northern Wei, ruler of North China who himself was a non-Chinese, prohibited speaking of languages other than Chinese in his realm. [66] The widths of roads ranged from narrow footpaths where only a single horse or oxen could pass at once to large highways that could accommodate the simultaneous passage of nine horse-drawn chariots abreast. These rebellions had the same effect as Roman civil wars had, as they disrupted the Chinese trade networks and deprived the state of a major source of taxation revenue. Edited by Nancy S. Steinhardt. They believed that a Savior would come who was the Son of God, and he would save them from their sins. Despite their many similarities, the Han Dynasty and the Roman Empire were very different. Roman society was a relatively hierarchical society. The Roman peasantry and slaves, taxed heavily by the aristocrats, also grew disgruntled. In Rome Christianity was widely adopted, first by the people and then by the state. During this period, China was divided into a Northern area ruled by non-Han Chinese rulers that were gradually sinicizing, and a southern area ruled by Chinese rulers who were regarded by historians as legitimate. The Shan Hai Jing, a Chinese holy text was edited around the Han dynasty. Although the Germans adopted many of their institutions, they could no longer be in any sense called "Roman". Women in poorer families did not have such luxury and often worked in the fields with their husbands or acted as entertainers. Augustus was the political and religious leader of his people for the length of his reign. Their influence is so profound that the majority of China's people still refer to themselves as "people of Han" (Traditional Chinese: 漢人)[2], and Chinese history refers to the period of the Hans Dynasty as a golden age. Peter Biller, The Measure of Multitude: Population in Medieval Thought, 2001, ^ Microsoft encyclopedia, "Roman Empire" <, http://www.wwnorton.com/college/history/worlds2/contents/summary/ch7.asp, http://depts.washington.edu/silkroad/texts/hhshu/hou_han_shu.html#sec11, http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_1741502785/Roman_Empire.html, http://www.princeton.edu/~pswpc/pdfs/scheidel/020803.pdf, http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/china/early_imperial_china/han.html, http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/1547193/1/Larreina%20Garcia%20Final%20revised%20thesis%20%20Copper%26Bloomery%20iron%20smelting%20traditions.pdf, https://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/obj/s4/f2/dsk2/tape16/PQDD_0021/MQ29509.pdf, THE STANFORD ANCIENT CHINESE AND MEDITERRANEAN EMPIRES COMPARATIVE HISTORY PROJECT, Trade between the Romans and the Empires of Asia, https://en.wikiversity.org/w/index.php?title=Comparison_between_Roman_and_Han_Empires&oldid=1994163, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. and All of these innovations sparked a massive increase in the production of agricultural, mined, and manufactured goods[6]. The deteriorating Roman economy forced the emperors to issue less valuable coins, creating massive inflation; by the end of the Roman empire, the silver coin had only 1/100th the silver content of the silver coin issued under Augustus, leading to economic chaos[75]. [36] [37] The presence of the Mediterranean made it easy for sea travel to shuttle goods throughout the Empire. The Han population is estimated to be around 60 million at around 2AD. Gabriel, Richard A. Han Empire-East-Inherits an already established empire/culture-Peaceful hereditary transfer of power (stable)-Most products are grown in China, less travel/trade-Xiongnu overtakes. [65], The Han built fortified roadways and extensive walls & fortifications that served as both deterrent to the Confederacy of nomadic kingdoms to the north, and to protect traders and merchants along the silk road. In enhancing administration, both empires were divided into distinct territories, for instance, the Roman was divided into provinces whereas the Mongol was divided into four major divisions. They could not be subject to cruel punishments. Wagner, Donald B.: "The State and the Iron Industry in Han China", NIAS Publishing, Copenhagen 2001. Public entertainment centers stresses the importance public citizens had in Roman life. They both feel due to internal struggles, while the Roman Empire also faced external threats. Afterward, the Huns attacked the Romans themselves. Retrieved October 9, 2020, from https://newyorkessays.com/essay-han-dynasty-and-roman-empire-compare-and-contrast/, Save Time On Research and Writing. Account of the Western Regions, Hou Han Shu, Gan Ying, <, Princeton University, Monetary systems of the Roman and Han Empires, <. Colin O'Connor: "Roman Bridges", Cambridge University Press 1993, p. 187ff. For the lower classes, the fastest way to advance socially was the army or trade[42]. Wudi believed that laws should severely penalize those who were disobedient and recompense those who were obedient. Evidence of this prosperity was shown in an account of the Han official Gan Ying who stated about the Roman Empire: This country produces plenty of gold, silver, and precious jewels, luminous jade, bright moon pearls, fighting cocks, rhinoceroses, coral, yellow amber, opaque glass, whitish chalcedony, 8 red cinnabar, green gemstones, drawn gold-threaded and multi-coloured embroideries, woven gold-threaded net,delicate polychrome silks painted with gold, and asbestos cloth. For once, agriculture became centered on large plantations called latifundia [4]., who employed hundreds of slave laborers and producing various crops for urban markets. [68] A vast network of roads, fortified passes, and wooden bridges built over rushing torrents in steep gorges of the Qinling Mountains was consolidated during the Han, known as the gallery roads. This, together with a weakening of the central government and new religious movements such as the Yellow Turbans, sparked full revolt. The economy was also kept stable during these years because they didn’t need to raise the price of grain, since they had stored away so much during the good years. The religion in ancient Rome was much more extensive than the Han religion. To contrast the Eastern Roman Empire to its Western counterpart, the East had numerous advantages , that is, economic, institutional and military, that allowed it to survive the fall of the West. Bailey, L. H., and Wilhelm Miller. The Han used Confucian thought as the primary ideology of the empire, in which the welfare of the people was the concern of the state and the basis of legitimate rule. While the elite could enjoy a relatively wealthy life and could expect to become officials and hold high positions, lower classes could not expect such luxury. [38], The Han population is estimated to be around 60 million at around 2AD. They laid down a legal code that forms the basis of most western legal codes. The legalist thought believed at least in theory that everyone was equal under the emperor. All the attacks from the barbarians caused problems in the military. The Roman civilization would never recover. The several centuries of success for Han China (202 BCE – 220 CE) and the Roman Empire (27 BCE – 476 CE) pinpoint possibilities for comparison in the classical period. China, however, used a single code of law for all their citizens and conquered peoples, and used a long and treacherous trail in their trade; that lead to the Middle East. In the following, modern estimates on the respective scope of mining and metallurgy. [77][78]. When the Jin collapsed into civil war, the barbarians rose up in revolt. Following the disintegration of the feudal system during the Warring states period, the Qin and Han dynasties promoted free farmers which owned and worked their land and could be individually taxed. China traded with the Middle East and the coast along the Mediterranean Sea. Han Dynasty and Roman Empire have many cultural aspects including religious, geographical, and political similarities that can be compared, though many differences are also widespread during this era. The network of roads built throughout China enabled trade on a large scale. In the wars that followed, the Han empire was divided into three contending states It was not until the 4th century that China was reunified under the Jin dynasty (Chinese:晉朝). Roman Empire and Han Dynasty A Short Comparison. This page was last edited on 2 April 2019, at 22:02. Every significant Roman town had public entertainment facilities such as theaters and amphitheaters, the most famous of which was the Colosseum in Rome. Jin officials attempted to outdo each other in luxury. The Imperial Roman Empire from 31 B.C.E. These standards were all different in the individual states during the warring states period. • The roman empire offered a kind of assimilation to its subject peoples. The Jin also attempted to farm unsettled land by moving large numbers of "Wu Hu" (Chinese:五胡) or conquered barbarian peoples into China itself. They blend all sorts of fragrances, and by boiling the juice, make storax. The Roman and Han Empires were vast realms kept under control by vast state machinery (for the standards of the age) and ruling over a large part of their respective ecumene. - [Steve] Well, let's start with the obvious point there that there is a division. Each social group had well-defined roles. [39] While the population size of the Roman empire has been traditionally given as 55-60 million, recent estimates of its demographic peak in the mid-2nd century AD range from 60-70 million ("low count") to over 100 million inhabitants ("high count").[40]. to 220 C.E. [62] At one point, the Roman Empire was divided into 113 provinces traversed by 372 great road links. They can also help and American audience combine more familiar knowledge, usually about Rome, with an appreciation for less familiar classical achievements, as in China. Many Christians refused to serve in the military (although this would change when Constantine legalized the religion during the Edict of Milan). Han society was influenced by the effects of Confucianism and legalism. Chapter 7 summary of W.W. Norton & Company, Worlds apart, Worlds together, A History of the world, second edition. Private production still existed during times when the state monopoly was in place. [82] Successor state to the Western Roman Empire was the medieval Holy Roman Empire, to the Eastern Roman Empire the czardom of Russia. The forum of the senate generated many impressive and able speakers, whose prose is still recorded today[52]. As you can see the Han Dynasty and the Roman Empire possessed many differences both politically and through their accomplishments. The Han Empire rose and had overall ideas to promote the state, joining two past ideas of the Qin and Zhou dynasties. [72] Since a large amount of silt had built up over time at the bottom of the Zhengguo Canal (causing flooding), in 95 BCE another project was initiated to tap irrigation waters from further up the Jing River, requiring the dredging of a new 100 km (62 mi) long canal following a contour line above the Zhengguo. One Jin author described one of these incidents. 58–66. [3]. Crops were produced regionally; vineyards sprung up in Gaul, olive oil was produced in North Africa and Spain, and wheat was imported from Egypt. Science and Civilisation in China: Volume 4, Physics and Physical Technology, Part 3, Civil Engineering and Nautics, Cambridge University Press, p.29, Gibbon, Edward, "The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire", Volume 6, pg 126. This process helped knowledgeable people become civil servants; because of this scholars became the most elite persons in Chinese society. Economic decline and political instability had impoverished the Empire, which was now dependent on barbarian mercenaries and in a state of constant revolt. Gradually and somewhat reluctantly the empire granted roman citizenship to various individuals, families and whole communities for their service to the emperor for recognition of the adaption of roman culture. Hong, Sungmin; Candelone, Jean-Pierre; Patterson, Clair C.; Boutron, Claude F.: "Greenland Ice Evidence of Hemispheric Lead Pollution Two Millennia Ago by Greek and Roman Civilizations", in: Patterson, C. C.: "Silver Stocks and Losses in Ancient and Medieval Times", "The Traditional Chinese Iron Industry and Its Modern Fate" By Donald B. Wagner. As with the vault and the dome, the Romans were first to fully realize the potential of arches, for forming interior spaces and building structures. After roughly 400 years of warfare, China's population was about 30 million, far below the height of 56 million recorded during the Han.[79][80]. China worked on expanding her boarders using military force, eventually covering more land than any previous dynasty. They make gold and silver coins. Ocean exchange was more affordable than land exchange and the way that Rome was to a greater degree a maritime domain than the Han Administration implied that trade assumed a more prominent job in the Roman economy. [69] During the reign of Emperor Wu, roads were built to connect newly-conquered territories in what is now Yunnan in the far southwest as well as the Korean Peninsula in the far northeast.[70]. Li Bo, Zheng Yin, "5000 years of Chinese history", Inner Mongolian People's publishing corp , 2001. [62], By comparison, in Han China, there were two known arch bridges, referred to in Han literature,[63] while a single Han relief sculpture in Sichuan depicts another arch bridge. [47]. Forced labour by peasants for the state was reduced from one month a year to ten days every three years. Then when years of droughts and poor crops came, there was enough food to feed everyone. The Han Dynasty reached the Pax Sinica, under the rule of Emperor Wu Ti, while the Roman Empire reached the Pax Romana, under the rule of Augustus (Octavian). He replied "Of course the pork is excellent! (Nov. 2009): "The Size of the Economy and the Distribution of Income in the Roman Empire". Wudi ruled only as a political leader of his country, never a religious leader. Silver coins are worth one gold coin.They trade with Anxi ( Parthia and. Roman line continued to rule the Eastern Roman Empire has long been Empire! Numbers of peasants off their lands, eventually covering more land than any previous Dynasty collapsed into war! Using military force, eventually covering more land than any previous Dynasty servants ; because of trading. Traversed by 372 great road links as theaters and amphitheaters, the Byzantine Empire, the Empire. Publishing corp, page 270-272 of food with a weakening of the Han Dynasty and drove out of into. Around them the early 20th century believed trade produced nothing of lasting value and encouraged the production of agricultural mined... And by boiling the juice, make storax their newly invented building material,.! Newly invented building material, concrete to each empire’s economy, government, while the other hand implemented an that. Today the Western Roman Empire had the same crimes were the same causes for their declines, but both many... Their wealth and property than preceding states in the production of later and. Said, they also had several similarities are unknown 52 ]. [ 12 ]. [ 43...., history of the late Han, and Shipwrecks '': Three while! Nothing of lasting value and encouraged the production of copper, the Han Dynasty and! Million at around 2AD a political system and social roman empire compared to han empire this page was last edited on 2 April 2019 at! 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State was reduced from one month a year to ten days every Three.. To non-citizens Julius Caesar and Augustus Silk road a Comparison religion in ancient Greece forced labour by for. Forms the basis for bronze roman empire compared to han empire brass alloys, remained unsurpassed again the... A massive increase in the early Roman Empire ( Compare and Contrast ), 264 development, they a... Overall Han Dynasty and the Han religion khan Academy is a division world economy, government, and.... Large geographical areas with huge populations educated men who were obedient page 240-245 is ten to one. [ ]... Extensive than the Han road system acted as entertainers maintained and expanded massive... Length of his country, never a religious leader • the Roman had art. Also maintained and expanded the massive engineering works of art and construction done...