Suddenly, in Babylon, while busy with plans to improve the irrigation of the Euphrates and to settle the coast of the Persian Gulf, Alexander was taken ill after a prolonged banquet and drinking bout; 10 days later, on June 13, 323, he died in his 33rd year; he had reigned for 12 years and eight months. The fleet was commanded by Nearchus, and Alexander’s own captain was Onesicritus; both later wrote accounts of the campaign. Alexander’s determination to follow Philip’s path of mediation in the pursuit of supreme leadership in Greece is certainly indicated by his policy of intervening in the Greek world only on a firm legitimate basis. Corrections? Leaving Porus, he then proceeded down the river and into the Indus, with half his forces on shipboard and half marching in three columns down the two banks. Turning, Alexander found Darius drawn up along the Pinarus River. Even Callisthenes, historian and nephew of Aristotle, whose ostentatious flattery had perhaps encouraged Alexander to see himself in the role of a god, refused to abase himself. März 1921 in Athen, Griechenland; † 30. The second son of King Constantine I Alexander was born in the summer palace of Tatoi on the outskirts of Athens. His parents were Philip II of Macedon and his wife Olympias. He was born in Pella in 356 BC and succeeded his father Philip II to the throne at the age of 20. The Persian plan to tempt Alexander across the river and kill him in the melee almost succeeded; but the Persian line broke, and Alexander’s victory was complete. During his youth, Alexander showed great observational powers when he tamed the wild horse Bucephalus. King Alexander of Greece.jpg 263 × 347; 31 KB. He was an extraordinary person who enjoyed to recite Homeric poetry. From his accession Alexander had set his mind on the Persian expedition. Both in Egypt and elsewhere in the Greek cities he received divine honours. For us, parentage is paramount. Mosaic of Alexander the Great discovered in the House of the Faun, Pompeii, Italy. After Alexander's father Philip was assassinated by the captain of his own bodyguards in 336 BC, Alexander assumed the leadership of Macedonia at the age of 20. How far the rigour that from now onward Alexander displayed against his governors represents exemplary punishment for gross maladministration during his absence and how far the elimination of men he had come to distrust (as in the case of Philotas and Parmenio) is debatable; but the ancient sources generally favourable to him comment adversely on his severity. King Alexander of Greece in Bandirma.jpg 1,313 × 992; 305 KB. Alexander thus underlined his Panhellenic policy, already symbolized in the sending of 300 panoplies (sets of armour) taken at the Granicus as an offering dedicated to Athena at Athens by “Alexander son of Philip and the Greeks (except the Spartans) from the barbarians who inhabit Asia.” (This formula, cited by the Greek historian Arrian in his history of Alexander’s campaigns, is noteworthy for its omission of any reference to Macedonia.) Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. He also accepted the surrender of Darius’s Greek mercenaries. Crossing the Elburz Mountains to the Caspian, he seized Zadracarta in Hyrcania and received the submission of a group of satraps and Persian notables, some of whom he confirmed in their offices; in a diversion westward, perhaps to modern Āmol, he reduced the Mardi, a mountain people who inhabited the Elburz Mountains. In the winter of 324 Alexander carried out a savage punitive expedition against the Cossaeans in the hills of Luristan. WikiMatrix. This army was to prove remarkable for its balanced combination of arms. Meanwhile, Darius with his Grand Army had advanced northward on the eastern side of Mount Amanus. At length, at the Amanis, he was rejoined by Nearchus and the fleet, which also had suffered losses. His troops were extremely loyal, believing in him throughout all hardships. Ideal für alle die, die während Ihres Urlaubs die griechische Kultur kennen lernen möchten oder das Nachtleben von Kassandra mit der Ruhe vom Hotel kombinieren möchten. The people welcomed him as their deliverer, and the Persian satrap Mazaces wisely surrendered. The second son of King Constantine (ruled 1913–17 and 1920–22) and Queen Sophia, Alexander became king (June 12, 1917) when his father was forced by the Allies of World War I to abdicate and thereby allow his country to join them in the war. At this point Alexander benefitted from the sudden death of Memnon, the competent Greek commander of the Persian fleet. Alexander now occupied Babylon, city and province; Mazaeus, who surrendered it, was confirmed as satrap in conjunction with a Macedonian troop commander, and quite exceptionally was granted the right to coin. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. While he could be ruthless and impulsive, Alexander was also charismatic and sensible. Omissions? Recrossing the Hindu Kush, probably by Bamiyan and the Ghorband Valley, Alexander divided his forces. Alexander’s march through Gedrosia proved disastrous; waterless desert and shortage of food and fuel caused great suffering, and many, especially women and children, perished in a sudden monsoon flood while encamped in a wadi. However, on Philip ’ s accession to the throne, Eleuthérios Venizélos became premier of in... 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