He obtained three doctorates (in philosophy, canon law and theology) at the Gregorian University in Rome, and then from 1882 to 1888 was a professor at the seminary in Padua. Orsenigo proved a poor instrument in this regard, concerned more with the anti-church policies of the Nazis and how these might affect German Catholics, than with taking action to help German Jews. The concordat that was another of the agreed documents of 1929 recognised Catholicism as the sole religion of the state (as it already was under Italian law, while other religions were tolerated), paid salaries to priests and bishops, gave civil recognition to church marriages (previously couples had to have a civil ceremony), and brought religious instruction into the public schools. Cardinal Pacelli stated that Our Lady of Fatima’s … [77], When the then-newly installed Nazi government began to instigate its program of anti-Semitism in 1933, Pius XI ordered the papal nuncio in Berlin, Cesare Orsenigo, to "look into whether and how it may be possible to become involved" in their aid. Pacelli, then 63, was elected Pope by the College of Cardinals in just three ballots, on March 2. His papal motto, “Pax Christi in regno Christi” (“The peace of Christ in the kingdom of … Others who sent messages of condolences were Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler, the former visiting the Vatican to pay his respects to the deceased pontiff. [13] On 11 June 1921, Benedict XV asked Ratti to deliver his message to the Polish episcopate, warning against political misuses of spiritual power, urging again peaceful coexistence with neighbouring people, stating that "love of country has its limits in justice and obligations". The Vatican refused to comply and thereafter Mussolini began to work with Hitler, adopting his anti-Semitic and race theories. Chiesa, fascismo e guerra di Etiopia", Laterza, Roma-Bari, This page was last edited on 21 December 2020, at 08:21. In 1928 he formed the Gregorian Consortium of universities in Rome administered by the Society of Jesus, fostering closer collaboration between their Gregorian University, Biblical Institute, and Oriental Institute.[34][35]. The Pope noted on the horizon the "threatening storm clouds" of religious wars of extermination over Germany. Nationalistic Germans objected to the Polish nuncio supervising local elections, and patriotic Poles were upset because he curtailed political action among the clergy. [118] In 1940, Bishop T. B. Pearson founded the Achille Ratti Climbing Club, based in the United Kingdom and named for Pius XI. The Church has a role in discussing the issues related to the social order. In Quadragesimo anno, Pius XI stated that social and economic issues are vital to the Church not from a technical point of view but in terms of moral and ethical issues involved. His Holiness Pius XI (Pius PP. This is a 2011 translation of a book first published in 2007 by Emma Fattorini, professor of … In his encyclical Iniquis afflictisque[90] from 18 November 1926, Pope Pius protested against the slaughter and persecution. [20], It was said after the dean Cardinal Vincenzo Vannutelli asked if he assented to the election that Ratti paused in silence for two minutes according to Cardinal Désiré-Joseph Mercier. The income largely paid for the upkeep of the expensive-to-maintain stock of historic buildings in the Vatican which until 1870 had been maintained through funds raised from the Papal States. [89] In the state of Tabasco the Church was in effect outlawed altogether. Italy, a civilized country, should not ape the barbarian German legislation, he said. 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