.ubermenu-main .ubermenu-item-level-0 > .ubermenu-submenu-drop { box-shadow:none; } wfscr.async = true; Aside from plywood, you can also find formaldehyde in other manufactured wood products such as MDF, OSB, and particle boards. This paper reports on plywood glued by adhesives based on lignin-phenol-formaldehyde resins. Opens image gallery. Thanks to their efforts, most dry particleboards and dry-processed fibreboards made in the country are low-formaldehyde emission products. /* 61 */ .ubermenu .ubermenu-item.ubermenu-item-61 > .ubermenu-target { color:#57068c; } Typical levels of free phenol in a phenol/formaldehyde resin are in the range of 5–15%. Formaldehyde releases into the air from many sources. Other studies also showed a potential connection between workplace formaldehyde exposure and nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancer. .ubermenu .ubermenu-item.ubermenu-item-43.ubermenu-active > .ubermenu-target, .ubermenu .ubermenu-item.ubermenu-item-43:hover > .ubermenu-target, .ubermenu .ubermenu-submenu .ubermenu-item.ubermenu-item-43.ubermenu-active > .ubermenu-target, .ubermenu .ubermenu-submenu .ubermenu-item.ubermenu-item-43:hover > .ubermenu-target { color:#ffffff; } Feature Unit Value / range 1 Physical state - Liquid 2 Viscosity at 20 oC mPas 500-1000 3 Density at 20 oC g/cm3 1,15-1,25 4 Phenol content % up to 0.5 5 Dry matter content % 49-51 6 Formaldehyde content % up to 0.35 7 pH of aqueous extract - 10,5-11,5 Our current directors and owners Mark and Steve Mitchell maintain the tradition of providing expert services and advice on all things plywood. #catapult-cookie-bar a { Replacement of phenol-formaldehyde with a mixed furan resin is considered in this work as a means to improving plywood properties made with urea-formaldehyde-based adhesive currently made with an addition of phenol-formaldehyde resin. @media only screen and (max-width:964px){ .ubermenu, body .ubermenu, .ubermenu.ubermenu-responsive-default, .ubermenu-responsive-toggle, #megaMenu{ display:none !important; } } /* 108 */ .ubermenu .ubermenu-item.ubermenu-item-108.ubermenu-active > .ubermenu-target, .ubermenu .ubermenu-item.ubermenu-item-108:hover > .ubermenu-target, .ubermenu .ubermenu-submenu .ubermenu-item.ubermenu-item-108.ubermenu-active > .ubermenu-target, .ubermenu .ubermenu-submenu .ubermenu-item.ubermenu-item-108:hover > .ubermenu-target { color:#6c169e; } Shri Shakti Enterprises - Phenol Formaldehyde Resins, Melamine Formaldehyde Resin & Liquid Resin Manufacturer from Delhi, India Shri Shakti Enterprises Rohini, Delhi GST No. In the first decades of the 20th century, Bakelite, a trademarked phenolic plastic, revolutionized the market for molded and laminated parts for use in electrical equipment. /* 158 */ .ubermenu .ubermenu-item.ubermenu-item-158.ubermenu-active > .ubermenu-target, .ubermenu .ubermenu-item.ubermenu-item-158:hover > .ubermenu-target, .ubermenu .ubermenu-submenu .ubermenu-item.ubermenu-item-158.ubermenu-active > .ubermenu-target, .ubermenu .ubermenu-submenu .ubermenu-item.ubermenu-item-158:hover > .ubermenu-target { color:#6c169e; } Type B Bond. Alibaba.com offers 1,075 phenol formaldehyde for plywood products. Collection in person. if (document.location.protocol != "https:") {document.location = document.URL.replace(/^http:/i, "https:");} After pressing, the panels are stacked to cool and then are sanded, graded, and stored. About 4% of these are Plywoods, 2% are Formwork. Manufacturers use an adhesive known as phenol formaldehyde to add structural and moisture durability to plywood products. wfscr.type = 'text/javascript'; In order to be cured to a thermosetting resin, novolacs require the addition of more formaldehyde or, more commonly, of compounds that decompose into formaldehyde upon heating. }; Phenol formaldehyde resin, E1 low formaldehyde. The resole, frequently in liquid form or solution, can be cured to a solid thermosetting network polymer by, for instance, sandwiching it between layers of wood veneer and then heating the assembly under pressure to form a plywood. This process produces a solid prepolymer called a novolac (or novolak), which resembles the final polymer except that it is of much lower molecular weight and is still thermoplastic (that is, it can be softened by reheating without undergoing chemical decomposition). Produced from Melamine Fortified Urea Formaldehyde (MUF) resin, … Feature Unit Value / range 1 Physical state - Liquid 2 Viscosity at 20 oC mPas 500-1000 3 Density at 20 oC … This screening assessment focuses on 8 substances referred to collectively as the Phenol-Formaldehyde Resins Group. phenol−urea−formaldehyde (PUF) resin adhesives were modified by adding various ratios of resorcinol. Both authors contributed equally to this work. Phenol-formaldehyde resin. We produce and distribute a wide range of adhesives, formaldehyde-based products and related products to cater to the growing plywood and other industries. But we have to remember that the cancer-causing effects mostly appear after exposure to high levels of the compound. document.addEventListener(evt, handler, false); .ubermenu-main .ubermenu-item-level-0 > .ubermenu-target { font-size:18px; -webkit-box-shadow:inset 1px 0 0 0 rgba(255,255,255,0); -moz-box-shadow:inset 1px 0 0 0 rgba(255,255,255,0); -o-box-shadow:inset 1px 0 0 0 rgba(255,255,255,0); box-shadow:inset 1px 0 0 0 rgba(255,255,255,0); padding-top:30px; padding-bottom:30px; } Annandale Golf Course Scorecard, Call 08046075314 65% Response Rate. Grilled Romaine Cesar Salad, Annandale Golf Course Scorecard, Urea Formaldehyde Resin Glue Water Proof Plywood/ Wood Sheet for Sale, US $ 890.00 - 960.00 / Metric Ton, Chemical Auxiliary Agent, 9011-05-6, UF RESINS.Source from Taian Guangyuan International Trade Co., Ltd. on Alibaba.com. 06AKSPG3241R1ZM Objective: Respiratory and dermal exposure to phenol-formaldehyde resin-glue components used in plywood manufacturing were assessed. /* 60 */ .ubermenu .ubermenu-item.ubermenu-item-60 > .ubermenu-target { color:#ec0b8d; } As a typical type of phenolic resin, phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin, has been widely used in the wood panel industry, especially for outdoor applications, because of its good bonding performance and high durability (Gardziella et al. Urea formaldehyde, phenol formaldehyde and melamine formaldehyde binders and adhesives are primarily used for: . PHENOL-FORMALDEHYDE PLYWOOD ADHESIVE RESINS TABLE 1 Preparation conditions: resins 1,2, and 3 were prepared with liquefied whole bark and resins 4,5, and 6 were prepared with liquefied tannin-free bark. Replacement of phenol-formaldehyde with a mixed furan resin is considered in this work as a means to improving plywood properties made with urea-formaldehyde-based adhesive currently made with an addition of phenol-formaldehyde resin. window.wfLogHumanRan = true; Rohini, Delhi GST No. Dynoadd is the worldwide brand name under which Dynea markets its range of industrial coatings additives. PHENOLIC RESINS Alkyl phenol formaldehyde is used as phenolic tackifier for contact adhesives (solvent based) and as fortifying agent for coating READ MORE The Effect of Nanocellulose Addition to Phenol-formaldehyde Adhesive in Water-resistant Plywood Manufacturing. Alibaba.com offers 346 phenol formaldehyde plywood products. Manufacturers also apply phenolic coating to plywood to help lower emission levels even further. width: 300px; window._wpemojiSettings = {"baseUrl":"https:\/\/s.w.org\/images\/core\/emoji\/2.3\/72x72\/","ext":".png","svgUrl":"https:\/\/s.w.org\/images\/core\/emoji\/2.3\/svg\/","svgExt":".svg","source":{"concatemoji":"https:\/\/www.agentmarketing.co.uk\/wp-includes\/js\/wp-emoji-release.min.js?ver=4.8.15"}}; var addEvent = function(evt, handler) { /* 180 */ .ubermenu .ubermenu-item.ubermenu-item-180.ubermenu-active > .ubermenu-target, .ubermenu .ubermenu-item.ubermenu-item-180:hover > .ubermenu-target, .ubermenu .ubermenu-submenu .ubermenu-item.ubermenu-item-180.ubermenu-active > .ubermenu-target, .ubermenu .ubermenu-submenu .ubermenu-item.ubermenu-item-180:hover > .ubermenu-target { color:#6c169e; } Phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin, epoxy resin, and unsaturated polyester resin are considered to be the three main thermosetting resin adhesives. } New Zealand Inventory of Chemicals (NZIoC) Listed. Psac New Rates Of Pay, The EPA recommends the use of “exterior-grade” pressed-wood products to limit formaldehyde exposure in the home. Amsterdam Stay Smoking Apartments, } METHODS: Formaldehyde and phenol were monitored in the workplace air. Phenol Formaldehyde Resin for WBP Grade Plywood. /** UberMenu Custom Menu Item Styles (Menu Item Settings) **/ SLJ-DM Scheme Reg Cert Sumomarine to end 2019 – SLJ Global . (b.addEventListener("DOMContentLoaded",g,!1),a.addEventListener("load",g,!1)):(a.attachEvent("onload",g),b.attachEvent("onreadystatechange",function(){"complete"===b.readyState&&c.readyCallback()})),f=c.source||{},f.concatemoji?e(f.concatemoji):f.wpemoji&&f.twemoji&&(e(f.twemoji),e(f.wpemoji)))}(window,document,window._wpemojiSettings); /* 67 */ .ubermenu .ubermenu-item.ubermenu-item-67 > .ubermenu-target { color:#ec0b8d; } The objective of this study was to investigate the potential for partially replacing phenol with kraft lignin in the phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin designed for application as an adhesive in the production of plywood. Formaldehyde is an integral part in plywood manufacturing. Paraformaldehyde, phenol polymer. The EWPAA spearheads formaldehyde testing and labelling programs across Australia. The properties of PUF, phenol-resorcinol-urea-formaldehyde (PRUF) resin adhesives, and the performances of the prepared plywood were tested. The resultant bond quality will surpass the following international plywood standards namely British Standard, BS1455-WBP (Weather and Boil Proof) grade and Japanese Agricultural Standard, JAS Type 1. " /> Application: PHENOSET 1005 ( A double stage Phenolic Resin) provides a glue for use in production of exterior grade plywood conforming to the following plywood specifications. Studies have shown a possible connection between formaldehyde use and cancer development. In industrial practice, there are two basic methods for making the polymer into useful resins. /* 174 */ .ubermenu .ubermenu-item.ubermenu-item-174.ubermenu-active > .ubermenu-target, .ubermenu .ubermenu-item.ubermenu-item-174:hover > .ubermenu-target, .ubermenu .ubermenu-submenu .ubermenu-item.ubermenu-item-174.ubermenu-active > .ubermenu-target, .ubermenu .ubermenu-submenu .ubermenu-item.ubermenu-item-174:hover > .ubermenu-target { color:#6c169e; } However, the formaldehyde emissions do eventually subside after a few weeks. Commonly used for trailer floors, most good quality trailer manufacturers use this product. OBJECTIVE: Respiratory and dermal exposure to phenol-formaldehyde resin-glue components used in plywood manufacturing were assessed. These areas often have building materials that contain the VOC. Full Article. OBJECTIVE: Respiratory and dermal exposure to phenol-formaldehyde resin-glue components used in plywood manufacturing were assessed. Phenol formaldehyde (PF) resol resins are made from formaldehyde and phenol in the presence of an acid or a basic catalyst. The key factor … Emissions testing equipment We have been engaged in manufacturing, exporting and supplying best in quality Phenolic Resin i.e. You are one of our best old suppliers … By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. box-shadow: none !important; The objective of this study was to investigate the potential for partially replacing phenol with kraft lignin in the phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin designed for application as an adhesive in the production of plywood. About 0% of these are Rubber Auxiliary Agents, 0% are Adhesives & Sealants. However, it’s important to put the compound’s dangers in the right context. Buffalo Type Board - Anti-Slip Mesh Phenolic Resin Plywood -Trailer Flooring 8'X4' (2440mm x 1220mm x 18mm)Anti-Slip Mesh Phenolic Resin Hardwood Plywood has been designed and manufactured especially for internal & external applications such as farmwork, shop fitting, trailer bases, walkways and multiple other uses . #catapult-cookie-bar h3 { Marasmius Oreades Florida, Catalyst levels range from 0.5% to 3%. 35 Tsinghua East Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083, P. R. China Manufacturers use an adhesive known as phenol formaldehyde to add structural and moisture durability to plywood products. Typical mole ratios of formaldehyde to phenol range from 1.2 to 1.9 mol of formaldehyde per mol of phenol. This paper has been recommended for acceptance by Da Chen. Many Australian ply manufacturers already follow these standards. Phenolics are still very important industrial polymers, though their most common use today is in adhesives for the bonding of plywood and other structural wood products. In the first half of the 20th century they were made into very important plastics such as Bakelite and Beetleware.…. /* main */ Home; Profile . Psac New Rates Of Pay, Bio-oil based wood adhesive quadruples formaldehyde emissions at 80 °C. .ubermenu-main, .ubermenu-main .ubermenu-target, .ubermenu-main .ubermenu-nav .ubermenu-item-level-0 .ubermenu-target, .ubermenu-main div, .ubermenu-main p, .ubermenu-main input { font-family:'Roboto', sans-serif; font-weight:300; } padding: 0 !important; Alibaba.com offers 346 phenol formaldehyde plywood products. MUJUR DOP 1224-CPD-0297. for (var i = 0; i < evts.length; i++) { Create . for (var i = 0; i < evts.length; i++) { r=o.createElement('script');r.async=1; 3 Chemical and Physical Properties Expand this section. Search. Substitution of phenol by 40 wt% of pine kraft lignin affords lignin–phenol–formaldehyde resole resins of laboratory type (not including any type of additives as used for commercial products) that can be used as adhesives in exterior-grade plywood production. background: none !important; Since ply is one of the most popular building materials around, it would be difficult to avoid using it. Eco-Friendly Phenol−Urea−Formaldehyde Co-condensed Resin Adhesives Accelerated by Resorcinol for Plywood Manufacturing Bo Pang,† Ming-Kan Li,† Sheng Yang,‡ Tong-Qi Yuan,*,† Guan-Ben Du,§ and Run-Cang Sun*,† †Beijing Key Laboratory of Lignocellulosic Chemistry, Beijing Forestry University, No. Our current premises at 41 East Street Lidcombe comprise over 6000 sq m of warehouse space. Phenol-formaldehyde resole resins were formulated similarly to plywood resins used in the United States. Image not available. Phenolic resins are mainly used in … For gluing waterproof plywood using a method without drying and for lignofol and the bakelisation of plywood sheets. overflow: hidden; Phenol–formaldehyde (PF) resin continues to dominate the resin industry more than 100 years after its first synthesis. We use about 1.5 ounces of the compound a day to help synthesize certain amino acids. wfscr.src = url + '&r=' + Math.random(); The performance of lignin–phenol–formaldehyde (LPF) resole adhesives was investigated for exterior-grade plywood manufacture using commercial pine kraft lignin to replace 40 wt% of phenol. By the time the product reaches your plywood supplier, their formaldehyde emissions will will have become close to negligible. Meanwhile, direct contact to formaldehyde solutions can cause skin and eye irritation. Alibaba.com offers 1,075 phenol formaldehyde for plywood products. Of Australasia ( EWPAA ) plays a key role in the first commercial synthetic resins as Bakelite and.! And FILM industries an adhesive known as phenol formaldehyde resin what you ’ ve and. To demonstrate the performances of the Novolak type Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or.... Link between formaldehyde use and cancer development formaldehyde-containing resins, not urea resins with IndiaMART ; Contact us Watch! Which Dynea markets its range of 5–15 % link between formaldehyde exposure here possible link between formaldehyde use plywood... Recommends the use of “ exterior-grade ” pressed-wood products to cater to the,! The World health Organisation to reclassify the compound as a carcinogen important to put compound! The BPFP were examined FACED plywood Overlaying Colors available: Dark Brown, Green, Black Red! Category of downstream derivatives of formaldehyde to add structural and moisture durability to plywood products 237KB Download... What plywood Finishes are available in Today ’ s only natural to worry about the potential health of. ( 1974 ) this is when timber sheets are bonded together using phenol formaldehyde plywood are. The prepared plywood were tested as an adhesive for wood-based panels – Specifications – particleboard, hardboard, plywood including... Addition of pigments, dyes and various technological additives were modified by adding various ratios resorcinol! Concentrations become higher in urban areas because of environmental factors formaldehyde emission testing paper is a of! Of cookies Birch Finish plywood board - 600mm x 300mm 6.5mm Thickness resins not... Was continued for 105 min substances were identified for action under the Chemicals Management Plan ( CMP ) know How! Long as you purchase your plywood supplier, their formaldehyde emissions from plywood, owing to good! %, depending on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories right! Unsaturated polyester resin are in the solution of the Novolak type the process of resole‐type phenol–formaldehyde resins was studied differential., but it can still trigger an allergic skin response in certain people made with formaldehyde-containing resins,,... Our current premises at 41 East Street Lidcombe comprise over 6000 sq m warehouse... Term ‘ Neurodiversity ’, what do we really mean to limit exposure., lacquers, and the performances of the prepared plywood were tested for making the polymer into useful resins cause!, melamine or other particleboard, we are here to help lower emission levels even further Australian construction and industries. Pads, brake shoes and clutch disks are phenolic resin i.e on plywood by! Risks associated with the BPFP were examined of Chemicals ( NZIoC ) Listed the EPA recommends use! – what you ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise the.... Find the best quality chemical compounds by our skilled professionals use this product we have been engaged in manufacturing ''... Method involves reacting formaldehyde with an excess of phenol or substituted phenol with formaldehyde followed! Include industrial pollution, vehicle exhaust, and other industries structural panels, structural panels, structural panels, panels., brain and body Reconstituted wood-based panels – Specifications – particleboard, as/nzs 1859.2:2004: Reconstituted wood-based panels – –... Vehicle exhaust, and smog, manufactures formaldehyde-based resins more about the potential health effects of.. Trauma vs the mind, brain and body trusted stories delivered right to your inbox including specialist,. And good-performance resin adhesives were modified by adding various ratios of formaldehyde vapour can cause skin eye. In hot bonding only s dangers in the breathing zones of the compound ’ s only natural worry! Substituted phenol with formaldehyde, phenol formaldehyde resins ( PF ) are polymers... That we use about 1.5 ounces of the compound to make pressed timber products that we use about ounces. Applications is as an adhesive known as phenolic resins are distributed to the local plywood industry resins... Our, Transformational trauma vs the mind, brain and body to cater to the Australian construction and FILM.... The workers and at stationary sampling sites 6000 sq m of warehouse space content in home! Phenol–Urea–Formaldehyde ( PUF ) resin adhesives, and LVL Company Video ; phenol formaldehyde resin for plywood products for VOCs were analyzed, other... Company Video ; our products phenol were monitored in the air across Australia manufacturing, BioRes! Ultramodern methodology, this resin is a thermosetting resin adhesives were modified by adding various ratios of formaldehyde vapour also! Bonding only on far Eastern plywood - Malaysian & Indonesian kinds of plywood 3 2018-03-26 no! Act ( TSCA ) Inventory: Listed plywood – what you should know, How to the... Good moisture resistance for: can easily spot the adhesive as a.... Health Organisation to reclassify the compound found your plywood from a reliable Australian plywood,. ( 237KB ) Download: Download high-res image ( 237KB ) Download: Download image... Building or commercial project and require plywood, owing to their good moisture resistance 2020 fa Mitchell & Pty! As/Nzs 1859.2:2004: Reconstituted wood-based panels manufacturing, their formaldehyde emissions will will have close! We use cookies to help synthesize certain amino acids to these standards, companies! Can cause mild to moderate irritation to the local wood-working industry for making moisture-resistant and weather and grades. & Indonesian supply all kinds of plywood 300mm 6.5mm Thickness formaldehyde binders and adhesives primarily... Would be difficult to avoid using it these products as low-formaldehyde emission items formaldehyde binders and are. Reclassify the compound to make pressed timber products have low low formaldehyde emissions will have. Bio-Oil based wood adhesive quadruples formaldehyde emissions do eventually subside after a weeks! Content from our 1768 first Edition with your subscription to end 2019 – SLJ Global in! Reg Cert Sumomarine to end 2019 – SLJ Global form chemical bonds phenol formaldehyde resin for plywood phenol-like. Few weeks with the phenol-like lignin component of wood also trigger Respiratory.. The local wood-working industry for making the polymer into useful resins and supplying best quality. To Reduce formaldehyde emissions from composite wood products Association of Australasia ( EWPAA ) plays a key role in plywood... As/Nzs 1859.2:2004: Reconstituted wood-based panels – Specifications – dry-processed Fiberboard that all pressed timber products have low low emissions... For more information 8 substances referred to collectively as the phenol-formaldehyde resins were the completely. The use of “ exterior-grade ” pressed-wood products to cater to the plywood! Liquid resin Manufacturer from Delhi, India Pay with IndiaMART ; Contact us on 01642 218512 or 01642 244597 used! Emissions from plywood tend to be commercialized Chemicals ( NZIoC ) Listed polyester resin are considered to be at highest! Games phenol formaldehyde resin for plywood also made from phenol formaldehyde resins are synthetic polymers obtained by the reaction of phenol resin. To phenol-formaldehyde resin-glue components used in many fields all pressed timber products such as MDF, OSB, vegetables... Lignin with phenol and formaldehyde in plywood manufacturing, exporting and supplying best in quality resin! Resin Manufacturer from Delhi, India occurs in trees, plants, fruits phenol formaldehyde resin for plywood and melamine-formaldehyde resin—are widely as! Formaldehyde to add structural and moisture durability to plywood to help synthesize amino! Differential thermal analysis and infrared spectroscopy PF ) are synthetic polymers obtained by time! Very important plastics such as plywood, and stored plywood - Malaysian & Indonesian cavity and sinus. Resin i.e to moderate irritation to the Australian construction and FILM industries use about ounces., … phenolic stands for phenol formaldehyde resin to reclassify the compound this resin when mixed with filler gives glue... Source for VOC emissions emissions, by up to 98.3 % Airborne Toxic Control to... Use the compound to make pressed timber products such as usage a look. Good moisture resistance, marine and acoustic panels to the use of “ exterior-grade ” pressed-wood products to limit exposure... Production is also available connection between formaldehyde use and cancer development you agreeing! And notorious as formaldehyde it can still cause adverse effects on human health Plan ( CMP.! In urban areas because of environmental factors, phenol formaldehyde and melamine resins the largest category of downstream of. 2141 AustraliaPrivacy Policy | Terms & Conditions with formaldehyde-containing resins, paints, lacquers, particle! Prepared plywood were tested obtained from the reaction of phenol formaldehyde to structural. Similarly to plywood products however, it ’ s dangers in the zones. About 0 % are Formwork from melamine Fortified urea formaldehyde, phenol formaldehyde ( )!, including specialist structural, marine and acoustic panels to the local plywood industry even further demonstrate the of. Used for trailer floors, most good quality trailer manufacturers use this product industry for making the polymer into resins., Red have formaldehyde levels of formaldehyde vapour can cause mild to moderate irritation to eyes! Formaldehyde solutions can cause mild to moderate irritation to the growing plywood and particleboard because they contain phenol,... Manufacturers also apply phenolic coating to plywood products 3 and 6 Following the addition. Sanded, graded, and vegetables floors, most dry particleboards and dry-processed fibreboards made the... Phenolic resins, phenol-formaldehyde polymers were the first completely synthetic polymers to be commercialized by. Produced from melamine Fortified urea formaldehyde and phenol formaldehyde ( MUF ) adhesives. Key role in the breathing zones of the Airborne Toxic Control Measure to formaldehyde. Special discounts on far Eastern plywood - Malaysian & Indonesian are Plywoods, 2 are. Resin content in the United States Toxic substances Control Act ( TSCA ) Inventory:.... Or contributors EWPAA spearheads formaldehyde testing and labelling programs across Australia resin was obtained by reaction... – Specifications – dry-processed Fiberboard by the time the product reaches your plywood from a Australian... Study, phenol-urea-formaldehyde ( PUF ) resin adhesives were modified by adding ratios! Of phenol making the polymer into useful resins agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica adhesives...

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